Testing is now available for five recognised hepatitis viruses (A, B, C, D and E), and molecular technology is uncovering further hepatotropic viruses. An enteric agent isolated from human stool samples and transmitted experimentally to primates is a candidate hepatitis F virus. A provisionally designated blood-borne hepatitis G virus is associated with acute and chronic non-ABCDE hepatitis and has a worldwide distribution. A group of flavi-like viruses, the GB group, also blood borne, has also been reported. The role of two of these viruses, GBV-A and GBV-B, in human viral hepatitis has not been determined, but a third agent, GBV-C, is associated with acute and chronic hepatitis and appears to be a West African variant of hepatitis G. Our current knowledge suggests that the hepatitis alphabet may need to be extended even after inclusion of some of these new viruses.