Two strains of a new gram-positive coryneform bacterium isolated from soil and from a sandstone surface are described. Strain 2002-39/1T (T = type strain) is a coccoid, nonmotile, non-acid-fast, microaerophilic organism. The menaquinones of this strain are MK-12 and MK-11, and the main components of the whole-cell sugars are glucose and rhamnose. No mycolic acids are present. The G+C content of the DNA is 74 mol%. Comparative 16S ribosomal DNA studies and a cell wall analysis revealed that this strain represents a new genus belonging to the group of actinomycetes that have diaminobutyric acid in their peptidoglycans. The second strain, strain ST54, which was isolated from a sandstone surface, had the same characteristic features as strain 2002-39/1T. The name Agrococcus jenensis gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed for these organisms. The type strain is strain 2002-39/1, which has been deposited in the German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures as strain DSM 9580.