Based on the results of cytological studies, it has been assumed that Cyanidioschyzon merolae does not contain actin genes. However, Southern hybridization of C. merolae cell-nuclear DNA with a yeast actin-gene probe has been suggested the presence of an actin gene in the C. merolae genome. In the present study, an actin gene was isolated from a C. merolae genomic library using a yeast actin-gene probe. The C. merolae actin gene has no intron. The predicted actin is composed of 377 amino acids and has an estimated molecular mass of 42 003 Da. Southern hybridization indicated that the C. merolae genome contains only one actin gene. This gene is transcribed at a size of 2.4 kb. When Southern hybridization was performed with C. merolae chromosomes separated by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, a band appeared on unseparated chromosomes XI and XII. A phylogenetic tree based on known eucaryote actin-gene sequences revealed that C. merolae diverged after the division of Protozoa, but before the division of Fungi, Animalia and Chlorophyta.