Survival to Lipopolysaccharide, Cytokine Release and Phagocyte Functions in Mice Treated With Different Total Parenteral Nutrition Regimens

Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1995 Aug;17(3):493-509. doi: 10.3109/08923979509016383.


Effects on host defenses of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) with long- (LCT) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) were studied. Survival to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, blood clearance of Escherichia coli, in vivo and in vitro production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were investigated. In BALB/c mice, LCTs produced a 25% reduction in mortality, compared with controls. TPN performed with a LCT plus MCT mixture reduced mortality by 50%. Spasms appeared after 18 h and 12 h respectively in mice treated with LCT-MCT mixture or LCTs alone, respect to controls (8 h). The LCT-MCT mixture produced a 67% blood clearance of E. coli after 1 h, while the treatment with LCTs alone had no significant effects compared to controls (about 40%). The LCT-MCT mixture induced a 50% increase in chemiluminescence respect to controls. A 33% increase was observed in rats treated with LCTs alone. TNF-alpha serum levels after challenge with LPS were not modified by any of the triglycerides or their combinations. IL-6 increased by 43% with LCT-MCT mixture and by 39% with LCTs alone versus controls. After a 3 h in vitro treatment with LCTs, human monocytes were stimulated to release TNF-alpha at levels higher than those stimulated with the LCT-MCT mixture, and respect to controls. In contrast after 3 h the stimulation with LCT-MCT mixture induced a higher IL-6 release than controls and cells stimulated with LCTs alone, or with LPS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Bactericidal Activity
  • Chemotaxis, Leukocyte
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Escherichia coli / immunology
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / chemistry
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / toxicity
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / metabolism
  • Lipopolysaccharides / toxicity*
  • Luminescent Measurements
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Monocytes / physiology
  • Parenteral Nutrition, Total / adverse effects*
  • Phagocytes / physiology*
  • Rats
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / metabolism


  • Cytokines
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous
  • Interleukin-6
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha