Discrimination and abuse experienced by general internists in Canada

J Gen Intern Med. 1995 Oct;10(10):565-72. doi: 10.1007/BF02640367.


Objective: To identify the frequency of psychological and emotional abuse, gender discrimination, verbal sexual harassment, physical sexual harassment, physical assault, and homophobia experienced by general internists.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Setting: Canadian general internal medicine practices.

Results: The overall response rate was 70.6% (984/1,393); the 501 respondents who classified themselves as general internists were studied. Three-fourths of the internists experienced psychological and emotional abuse at the hands of patients, and 38% of the women and 26% of the men experienced physical assault by patients. The majority of the female internists experienced gender discrimination by patients (67%) and by physician peers (56%). Forty-five percent of the women experienced verbal sexual harassment by patients, and 22% experienced physical sexual harassment by patients. The male internists experienced verbal sexual harassment from nurses slightly more often than the female internists did (19% vs 13%, p > 0.05). Verbal sexual harassment by male colleagues was reported by 35% of the female internists, and physical sexual harassment was reported by 11%. Approximately 40% of general internists reported homophobic remarks by both health care team members and patients.

Conclusions: Abuse, discrimination, and homophobia are prevalent in the internal medicine workplace. A direct, progressive, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to label and address these problems.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Canada
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Internal Medicine*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Physician-Patient Relations*
  • Prejudice*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sexual Harassment / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires