Blood pressure regulation during intermittent hemodialysis treatment involves many different mechanisms. Eight normotensive patients without antihypertensive drugs on intermittent hemodialysis treatment, mean age 50 years, were studied with 24-hour blood pressure measurements. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were determined concomitantly. Eight control individuals matched for age and sex were investigated in the same way. A significant increase of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and pathological circadian rhythm was seen among the dialysis patients. High levels of ANP were found before and after dialysis. NPY showed steady state levels through the 24 hours and did not differ between the two groups. Overhydration is a probable cause of the disturbed blood pressure regulation and increased ANP-values.