[Future prospects in contraception]

Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1995;257(1-4):541-7. doi: 10.1007/BF02264885.
[Article in German]


PIP: Only 40% of the 1.2 billion couples in reproductive age have access to effective contraceptive methods, although only $3.0 per couple per year would suffice for contraception worldwide. Abortions are performed for 40-60 million women annually. More than 200,000 women die as a result of abortions, and another 500,000 die due to labor complications. Contraception for women comprises the following: 1) agents that prevent ovulation; prolonged breast feeding (98% safe contraception within the first 6 months); oral contraceptives containing estrogens and gestagens (60-80 million women use them worldwide; in 1968 the 50 g estrogen containing pill, in 1972 the micropill with 30 g of ethinyl estradiol [EE], and in 1992 the ultra-low-dose pill with 20 g of EE were introduced); and future developments (third generation progestagens, antigestagens, nonsteroidal natural substances, melatonin, the combination of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs and natural estrogens); 2) prevention of fertilization: mechanical methods (diaphragm, sterilization methods by laparoscopy or chemical means); chemical methods (spermicides such as nonoxynol); behavioral methods (temperature methods using refined measurement of the body temperature, cervical mucus resistance); hormonal methods (implants such as Norplant containing levonorgestrel [LNG], Implanon containing 3-ketodesogestrel, the vaginal ring [the WHO-ring and the Organon ring], the minipill with pure gestagen, one-month injection with Cyclofem), IUDs (copper-containing IUDs, LNG-containing IUDs with a Pearl Index of 0.2-0.5 and reduction of dysmenorrhea); and immunological contraception (ovum and spermatozoon antigens); 3) the prevention of implantation: hormonal methods (the morning-after pill with high-dose EE or the combination of estrogen and gestagen); insertion of an IUD up to the 6th day after coitus; immunological methods (human chorionic gonadotropin antibodies, antibodies against the zona pellucida glycoproteins, implantation inhibition through interaction with interleukin IL-1 receptor, and antibodies against specific proteins of the endometrium influencing implantation). Contraception for men consist of the condom, vasectomy, coitus interruptus, and medical inhibition of spermiogenesis (testosterone ester and gossypol).

Publication types

  • English Abstract

MeSH terms

  • Contraception / trends*
  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal / administration & dosage
  • Family Planning Services / trends*
  • Female
  • Forecasting
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intrauterine Devices, Copper
  • Intrauterine Devices, Medicated
  • Male
  • Population Control / trends*
  • Pregnancy


  • Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal