Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum penetration hyphae infect living cells in the meristematic zone of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) roots. We characterized wall modifications induced by the fungus during infection of the protodermis using antibodies against callose, arabinogalactan-proteins, xyloglucan, pectin, polygalacturonic acid and rhamnogalacturonan I in high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted root tissue. Using quantitative immunogold labelling we compared the cell walls before and after hyphal contact, cell plates with plasmodesmata during cytokinesis, and wall appositions induced by fungal contact. In the already-existing wall, fungal contact induced only minor modifications such as an increase of xyloglucan epitopes. Wall appositions mostly exhibited epitopes similar to the cell plate except that wall appositions had a much higher callose content. This study shows that wall appositions induced by Fusarium oxysporum hyphae are the result of normal cell wall synthesis and the addition of large amounts of callose. The appositions do not stop fungal growth.