Methodologies for mapping of genes underlying quantitative traits have advanced considerably but have not been accompanied by a parallel development of new population structures. We present a novel population consisting of 50 introgression lines (ILs) originating from a cross between the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii and the cultivated tomato (cv M82). Each of the lines contains a single homozygous restriction fragment length polymorphism-defined L. pennellii chromosome segment, and together the lines provide complete coverage of the genome and a set of lines nearly isogenic to M82. A field trial of the ILs and their hybrids revealed at least 23 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for total soluble solids content and 18 for fruit mass; these estimates are twice as high as previously reported estimates based on traditional mapping populations. For finer mapping of a QTL affecting fruit mass, the introgressed segment was recombined into smaller fragments that allowed the identification of three linked loci. At least 16 QTL for plant weight, 22 for percentage green fruit weight, 11 for total yield and 14 for total soluble solids yield were identified. Gene action for fruit and plant characteristics was mainly additive, while overdominance (or pseudo-overdominance) of wild species introgressions was detected for yield.