Malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in 78 noninsulin-dependent diabetic patients, 38 hyperlipidemic patients, and 28 healthy subjects. Diabetic patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the existence of hyperlipidemia and other complications. Serum and urine MDA concentrations were significantly higher in diabetic and nondiabetic patient groups than in the control group. By contrast to urine MDA levels, serum MDA level was significantly higher in hyperlipidemic diabetics than that of normolipidemic diabetics. Serum MDA levels in the hyperlipidemic diabetic group and urine MDA levels in both diabetic groups were significantly higher than those in hyperlipidemic nondiabetic group. In both diabetic groups, the existence of complications didn't affect serum and urine MDA levels. No correlation existed between serum and urine MDA levels in both patient groups and control subjects. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.