Several proteins have been postulated as possible targets of immune attack in Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS). Heterogeneity of autoantibodies in sera from 20 LEMS patients was studied by comparing their reactivity to synaptotagmin, a synaptic vesicle protein, and voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs). Six patients' sera (1 with small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC)) contained antibodies specifically recognizing the recombinant synaptotagmin on immunoblots. Thirteen (11 with SCLC) and 16 (11 with SCLC and 1 with poorly differentiated cell carcinoma in the lung) patients' sera immunoprecipitated omega-conotoxin GVIA-labeled N-type and omega-conotoxin MVIIC-labeled Q-type VGCCs, respectively. Three of 6 synaptotagmin-positive sera had cross-reactivity with N and/or Q subtypes of VGCC; the remaining 3 showed no cross-reactivity with VGCCs. Results indicate that LEMS sera are heterogeneous in the spectrum of containing antibodies, and suggest that this heterogeneity reflects the immune response to various synaptic proteins including not only multiple VGCCs but also synaptosecretory complex proteins.