Purpose: The biological and therapeutic implications of extravesical involvement in patients with bladder carcinoma in situ were analyzed.
Materials and methods: Of 138 patients with bladder carcinoma in situ 87 (63%) had extravesical involvement, including the prostate in 53, the upper urinary tract in 11 and both structures in 23 (pan-urothelial involvement). With survival free of disease as an end point, univariate and multivariate analyses were done.
Results: Patients with extravesical involvement had worse survival than those with bladder carcinoma in situ alone (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis prostate involvement (p = 0.0007) and pan-urothelial involvement (p = 0.0001) were selected as significant variables. When pathological patterns were considered prostatic stromal invasion (p = 0.0002) was the only variable selected. With these data 3 patient groups with disease mortality risk were defined.
Conclusions: Prostate involvement and pan-urothelial involvement behave as independent prognostic factors, with the latter probably reflecting an extremetly diffuse character of carcinoma in situ. However, the upper urinary tract had no influence on survival. In patients with upper urinary tract and/or prostatic involvement limited to the mucosa treatment can be conservative. Patients with ductal or stromal involvement should undergo radical treatment. For upper tract involvement conservative approaches may be considered if there are no radiological signs of invasion or low grade tumor.