Dihydropyridines, phenylalkylamines and benzothiazepines block N-, P/Q- and R-type calcium currents

Pflugers Arch. 1995 Nov;431(1):10-9. doi: 10.1007/BF00374372.


We compared the effects of representative members of three major classes of cardiac L-type channel antagonists, i.e. dihydropyridines (DHPs), phenylalkylamines (PAAs) and benzothiazepines (BTZs) on high-voltage-activated (HVA) Ca2+ channel currents recorded from a holding potential of -100 mV in rat ventricular cells, mouse sensory neurons and rat motoneurons. Nimodipine (DHP), verapamil (PAA) and diltiazem (BTZ) block the cardiac L-type Ca2+ channel current (EC50: 1 microM, 4 microM and 40 microM, respectively). At these concentrations, the drugs could also inhibit HVA Ca2+ channel currents in both sensory and motor neurons. Large blocking effects (> 50%) could be observed at 2-10 times these concentrations. The omega -conotoxin-GVIA-sensitive (omega -CTx-GVIA, N-type), omega -agatoxin-IVA-sensitive (omega -Aga-IVA, P- and Q-types) and non-L-type omega -CTx-GVIA-, omega -Aga-IVA-insensitive (R-types) currents accounted for more than 90% of the global current. Furthermore, our data showed that omega -CTx-GVIA and omega -Aga-IVA spare L-type currents and have only additive blocking effects on neuronal HVA currents. We conclude that DHPs, PAAs and BTZs have substantial inhibitory effects on neuronal non-L-type Ca2+ channels. Inhibitions occur at concentrations that are not maximally active on cardiac L-type Ca2+ channels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / pharmacology*
  • Calcium Channels / drug effects*
  • Calcium Channels / metabolism
  • Dihydropyridines / pharmacology*
  • Diltiazem / pharmacology
  • Ganglia, Spinal / drug effects
  • Ganglia, Spinal / metabolism
  • Heart / drug effects
  • Homovanillic Acid / metabolism
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Ion Channel Gating / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Motor Neurons / drug effects
  • Motor Neurons / metabolism
  • Myocardium / cytology
  • Myocardium / metabolism
  • Neurons, Afferent / drug effects
  • Neurons, Afferent / metabolism
  • Nimodipine / pharmacology
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Peptides / pharmacology
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Spider Venoms / pharmacology
  • Verapamil / pharmacology
  • omega-Agatoxin IVA
  • omega-Conotoxin GVIA


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Calcium Channels
  • Dihydropyridines
  • Peptides
  • Spider Venoms
  • omega-Agatoxin IVA
  • Nimodipine
  • omega-Conotoxin GVIA
  • Verapamil
  • Diltiazem
  • Homovanillic Acid