Phenytoin as a risk factor in gingival hyperplasia

Ther Drug Monit. 1995 Oct;17(5):445-8. doi: 10.1097/00007691-199510000-00002.


Fifty-four out-patients with epilepsy who had been taking phenytoin for more than one year were examined for gingival hyperplasia. Approximately 76% of patients showed either mild or no gingival hyperplasia. Lesion severity was then compared statistically to phenytoin dosage and drug concentrations as well as to other clinical and laboratory parameters. There was a tendency for gingival hypertrophy to be associated with both increasing dosage of phenytoin per unit of body weight and the duration of phenytoin administration. All patients followed had a statistically significant progressive trend to increasing gingival hyperplasia with higher total and free phenytoin concentration.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage
  • Anticonvulsants / adverse effects*
  • Anticonvulsants / blood
  • Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Epilepsy / drug therapy
  • Female
  • Gingival Hyperplasia / chemically induced*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phenytoin / administration & dosage
  • Phenytoin / adverse effects*
  • Phenytoin / blood
  • Phenytoin / therapeutic use
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Phenytoin