Evolution of the active sequences of the HpaI short interspersed elements

J Mol Evol. 1995 Dec;41(6):986-95. doi: 10.1007/BF00173180.


Ninety-nine members of the salmonid HpaI and AvaIII families of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) were aligned and a general consensus sequence was deduced. The presence of 26 correlated changes in nucleotides (diagnostic nucleotides) from those in the consensus sequence allowed us to divide the members of the HpaI family into 12 subfamilies and those of the AvaIII family into two subfamilies. On the basis of the average sequence divergences and the phylogenetic distributions of the subfamilies, the relative antiquity of the subfamilies and the process of sequential changes in the respective source sequences were inferred. Despite the higher mutation rates of CG dinucleotides in individual dispersed members, no hypermutability of CG positions was observed in changes in the source sequences. This result suggests that sequences of SINEs located in a nonmethylated or hypomethylated genomic region could have been selected as source sequences for retroposition and/or that some CG sites are the parts of recognition sequences of retropositional machineries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA / genetics
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid / genetics*
  • Salmonidae / genetics*
  • Sequence Alignment


  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/D49852
  • GENBANK/D49853
  • GENBANK/D49854
  • GENBANK/D49855
  • GENBANK/D49856
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  • GENBANK/D49871
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  • GENBANK/D49876
  • GENBANK/D49877
  • GENBANK/D49878
  • GENBANK/D49879
  • GENBANK/D49880
  • GENBANK/D49881