PAR Corneal Topography System (PAR CTS): the clinical application of close-range photogrammetry

Optom Vis Sci. 1995 Nov;72(11):828-37. doi: 10.1097/00006324-199511000-00009.


The PAR Corneal Topography System (CTS) is a computer-driven corneal imaging system which uses close-range photogrammetry (rasterphotogrammetry) to measure and produce a topographic map of the corneal surface. The PAR CTS makes direct point-by-point measurements of surface elevation using a stereo-triangulation technique. The CTS uses a grid pattern composed of horizontal and vertical lines spaced about 0.2 mm (200 microns) apart. Each grid intersection comprises a surface feature which can be located in multiple images and used to generate an (x,y,z) coordinate. Unlike placido disc-based videokeratoscopes, the PAR CTS requires neither a smooth reflective surface nor precise spatial alignment for accurate imaging. In addition to surface elevation, the PAR CTS computes axial and tangential curvatures and refractive power. Difference maps are available in all curvatures, refractive power, and in absolute elevation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cornea / anatomy & histology*
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods*
  • Photogrammetry / instrumentation
  • Photogrammetry / methods*
  • Photogrammetry / standards