The pathophysiology of the scorpion envenoming syndrome is reviewed with emphasis on the body systems commonly affected. Concepts of the mechanisms underlying venom action, as can be explained by the recently discovered effects on ionic channels, are discussed. The results of clinical analysis of cases of scorpion sting victims and animal experiments with scorpion envenomation supporting these concepts are presented. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of scorpion venoms and their correlation to the magnitude of toxic effects are presented in relation to the potentials of therapeutic intervention. The pharmacological basis of the therapeutic usefulness and toxicities of the drugs commonly used in the treatment of scorpion envenoming is also projected. Finally, the results of a successful nation-wide clinical study with serotherapy of scorpion envenoming are presented and evaluated.