Antibody response to diphtheria, tetanus, and poliomyelitis vaccines in relation to the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes in adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus

Clin Infect Dis. 1995 Nov;21(5):1197-203. doi: 10.1093/clinids/21.5.1197.


A prospective study of antibody production by adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after vaccination with T lymphocyte-dependent diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and inactivated trivalent poliovirus vaccine was conducted. Individuals were divided into three groups according to CD4+ T-lymphocyte count: group 1 had a count of < or = 100-300 x 10(6)/L; and group 3, > 300 x 10(6)/L. After vaccination, 61%, 70%, and 73% of the individuals in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively, developed protective titers of antibody to diphtheria toxin; the mean postvaccination antibody titer of HIV-infected individuals was significantly lower than that of healthy controls not infected with HIV. Furthermore, the mean titers of antibodies to tetanus toxin and poliovirus were significantly lower in HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ lymphocyte counts of < 300 x 10(6)/L than in controls. Of the HIV-infected vaccinees, 83%-100% were protected against tetanus and 78%-100% against polio. We conclude that HIV-infected individuals with CD4+ lymphocyte counts of < 300 x 10(6)/L have an impaired (secondary) antibody response after receipt of T lymphocyte-dependent vaccines.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / biosynthesis
  • Antibodies, Bacterial / blood
  • Antibodies, Viral / biosynthesis
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diphtheria Toxoid / immunology*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated / immunology*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Tetanus Toxoid / immunology*


  • Antibodies, Bacterial
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Diphtheria Toxoid
  • Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated
  • Tetanus Toxoid