1H, 13C and 15N Chemical Shift Referencing in Biomolecular NMR

J Biomol NMR. 1995 Sep;6(2):135-40. doi: 10.1007/BF00211777.


A considerable degree of variability exists in the way that 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shifts are reported and referenced for biomolecules. In this article we explore some of the reasons for this situation and propose guidelines for future chemical shift referencing and for conversion from many common 1H, 13C and 15N chemical shift standards, now used in biomolecular NMR, to those proposed here.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Isotopes*
  • Hydrogen*
  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy / methods*
  • Nitrogen Isotopes*
  • Reference Standards


  • Carbon Isotopes
  • Nitrogen Isotopes
  • Hydrogen