We report the incidence, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of peripheral vascular complications following coronary interventional procedures as reviewed in the English-language literature. Peripheral vascular complications include hematomas, pseudoaneurysms, arteriovenous fistulae, acute arterial occlusions, cholesterol emboli, and infections that occur with an overall incidence of 1.5-9%. Major predictors of such complications following coronary interventional procedures include advanced age, repeat percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, female gender, and peripheral vascular disease. Minor predictors include level of anticoagulation, use of thrombolytic agents, elevated creatinine levels, low platelet counts, longer periods of anticoagulation, and use of increased sheath size. Ultrasound-guided compression repair of pseudoaneurysms and arteriovenous fistulae are discussed, as are newer methods of treatment such as hemostatic puncture closure devices. Anticipation and early recognition of possible peripheral vascular complications in conjunction with careful attention to the optimal activated clotting time for sheath removal following coronary interventional procedures may translate into fewer vascular complications as well as into shorter and less costly hospital stays.