A new Corynebacterium species, Corynebacterium argentoratense was isolated from the throats of four human patients. It is characterized by the presence of chemotype IV, a cell wall, corynomycolic acids, and a G+C content ranging from 60 to 61 mol%. Strains belonging to this species exhibit high levels of DNA relatedness as determined by DNA-DNA hybridization experiments (S1 nuclease procedure) but no close DNA relatedness with related Corynebacterium species. Phylogenies based on comparative analyses of nearly complete small-subunit rDNA sequences confirmed the inclusion of this new species within the genus Corynebacterium and grouped it in a cluster with C. diphtheriae, C. ulcerans, C. pseudotuberculosis, and C. kutscheri. PCR experiments revealed an absence of the gene coding for diphtheria toxin. This new species can be identified by its mycolic acid pattern, fermentation of sugars, and enzymatic activities. Strain IBS B10697 (CIP 104296) is the type strain of C. argentoratense.