A porcine model for renal hemodynamic study during laparoscopy

J Surg Res. 1996 Jan;60(1):61-8. doi: 10.1006/jsre.1996.0011.


Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is a sensitive method for the measurement of microvascular blood flow in tissue. The method has been found useful for estimating skin, liver, or gastrointestinal blood flow. Whether it can be applied laparoscopically and whether it is able to measure the intraparenchymal blood flow of an intraabdominal organ is still unknown. In a pilot study, 6 pigs received a laparotomy for placement of a 19-gauge LDF needle probe into the renal parenchyma. Three different locations of the lower pole kidney were chosen for the blood flow measurement. The reliability of using the instrument to measure the renal tissue blood flow was assessed by comparison of the results of renal arterial blood flow obtained from a well-established methodology--ultrasonic Doppler flowmetry. Recordings were taken following (a) intravenous administration of 0.005 mg/kg norepinephrine, (b) manual compression of the suprarenal aorta, and (c) intravenous injection of a lethal dose of phenobarbital (50 mg/kg). Measurements of LDF were possible in all kidney units. The renal tissue perfusion detected by LDF correlated excellently with the renal arterial blood flow under different renal perfusion pressures. The feasibility of using LDF probe to measure the renal tissue perfusion in a laparoscopic model was then assessed in 15 pigs. Under pneumoperitoneum, the right kidneys were approached transperitoneally with the animal in the decubitus position. A total of three trocars were used. The peritoneum and Gerota's fascia were incised and the LDF needle probe was manipulated and inserted by an endoforceps into the renal tissue via a 5-mm trocar. The insertion of the LDF needle probe was technically feasible in all 15 kidney units, and the depth of insertion could be adjusted under direct vision. Baseline values for the renal cortical and renal medullary blood flow were 50.1 +/- 17.7 and 8.8 +/- 3.3 ml/min/100 g tissue, respectively. Spatial variations of the LDF measurements averaged 6%, and temporal variations over 15 min averaged 5%. Four additional hemodynamic parameters were simultaneously recorded, including left carotid artery blood flow, aortic blood pressure, inferior vena caval pressure, and intraabdominal pressure. It appears that systemic and renal hemodynamic parameters can be monitored reliably and continuously in the porcine model. This method allows further information concerning hemodynamic changes and safety of laparoscopy to be obtained.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Intraoperative Period
  • Laparoscopy*
  • Laser-Doppler Flowmetry
  • Models, Biological
  • Monitoring, Physiologic
  • Pilot Projects
  • Renal Circulation*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Swine