An electroneutral thiazide-sensitive Na-Cl cotransport pathway (TSC) has been localized functionally to the distal convoluted tubule (DCT), although the TSC has also been detected in the connecting tubule (CNT), the cortical collecting duct, and the medullary collecting tubule as well. The present experiments were designed to localize expression of message for the TSC in rat and human kidney. A riboprobe, generated from the mouse TSC, was used for in situ hybridization. Simultaneous immunocytochemistry, using antibodies to Tamm-Horsfall protein, band 3, and the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, permitted delineation of specific nephron segments. In rat, message for the TSC was highly expressed in DCT cells but not elsewhere. The transition from thick ascending limb to DCT was abrupt, whereas the transition to CNT was gradual. In the more distal region of rat DCT (DCT-2), which contained few intercalated cells, both TSC message and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger immunoreactivity were present. Treatment of rats with furosemide for 5 days increased expression of TSC message within the DCT but did not induce its expression elsewhere. In humans, expression of TSC message was also highest in cells of the DCT. In humans, however, expression extended well into the CNT. These experiments indicate that the TSC is expressed predominantly by DCT cells in both rat and humans, although expression extends into the CNT cells in humans. They also show that the TSC and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are coexpressed by a subpopulation of DCT cells near the junction with the CNT.