Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis during a long airplane flight

N Engl J Med. 1996 Apr 11;334(15):933-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199604113341501.


Background: In April 1994, a passenger with infectious multi-drug resistant tuberculosis traveled on commercial-airline flights from Honolulu to Chicago and from Chicago to Baltimore and returned one month later. We sought to determine whether she had infected any of her contacts on this extensive trip.

Methods: Passengers and crew were identified from airline records and were notified of their exposure, asked to complete a questionnaire, and screened by tuberculin skin tests.

Results: Of the 925 people on the airplanes, 802 (86.7 percent) responded. All 11 contacts with positive tuberculin skin tests who were on the April flights and 2 of 3 contacts with positive tests who were on the Baltimore-to-Chicago flight in May had other risk factors for tuberculosis. More contacts on the final, 8.75-hour flight from Chicago to Honolulu had positive skin tests than those on the other three flights (6 percent, as compared with 2.3, 3.8, and 2.8 percent). Of 15 contacts with positive tests on the May flight from Chicago to Honolulu, 6 (4 with skin-test conversion) had no other risk factors; all 6 had sat in the same section of the plane as the index patient (P=0.001). Passengers seated within two rows of the index patient were more likely to have positive tuberculin skin tests than those in the rest of the section (4 of 13, or 30.8 percent, vs. 2 of 55, or 3.6 percent; rate ratio, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7 to 41.3; P=0.01).

Conclusions: The transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that we describe aboard a commercial aircraft involved a highly infectious passenger, a long flight, and close proximity of contacts to the index patient.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aerospace Medicine
  • Aged
  • Aircraft*
  • Contact Tracing
  • Disease Transmission, Infectious* / prevention & control
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Travel*
  • Tuberculin Test
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / diagnosis
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / transmission*
  • United States
  • Ventilation