Objective: To evaluate the long-term outcomes after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Methods: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected and HIV-negative women treated for CIN by ablation or excision were followed-up prospectively by cytology and colposcopy for periods of up to 73 months.
Results: Among 127 HIV-infected CIN patients, 62% developed recurrent CIN by 36 months after treatment, compared with 18% of the 193 HIV-negative CIN patients. Recurrence rates reached 87% in 41 HIV-infected women with CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3. Progression to higher-grade neoplasia, including one invasive cancer, occurred by 36 months in 25% of HIV-infected and 2% of HIV-negative women. After adjusting for age, CIN severity, and treatment type, predictors of recurrence included HIV infection (rate ratio 4.4), and, in HIV-positive women, low CD4 count (rate ratio 2.2). In patients treated by excision, predictors of recurrence included HIV infection (rate ratio 2.0) and residual CIN after treatment (rate ratio 2.7). After a second treatment,a second CIN recurrence developed in 14 of 33 HIV-infected and in one of 17 HIV-negative women. After a third treatment, three of six HIV-infected women developed a third recurrence. With long-term follow-up, 45% of treated HIV-infected CIN patients had chronic condylomatous changes in the cervix compared with 5% of HIV-negative women.
Conclusion: In HIV-infected women, CIN may recur despite multiple treatments, and chronic condylomatous changes are common. Innovative therapies for controlling CIN in HIV-infected women are needed.