Serum Cytokine Profiles in Acute Primary HIV-1 Infection and in Infectious Mononucleosis

Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996 Jan;78(1):61-9. doi: 10.1006/clin.1996.0009.


Serum cytokine profiles, T-cell subsets, and general parameters of immune activation were evaluated in 15 patients with acute primary HIV-1 infection, and compared with those obtained from 18 patients with acute primary Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and from 18 control subjects in order to elucidate possible defects of immune response to HIV in early phases of virus-host interaction. Mean CD4+ cell count, serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, 5'-neopterin, and beta 2-microglobulin were significantly lower in acute HIV-1 infection than in EBV infection. Both acute HIV-1 and EBV infections were characterized by significantly higher mean CD8+ cell count and soluble CD8 antigen (sCD8) levels compared to control subjects, while acute HIV-1 infection was accompanied by the highest interferon (IFN)-gamma serum concentrations. In primary HIV-1 infection, significant impairment of CD4+- mediated T-helper function may lead to viral escape and persistence of infection despite an early and vigorous CD8+ T-lymphocyte activation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Biopterin / analogs & derivatives
  • Biopterin / blood
  • Cytokines / blood*
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / blood
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV-1 / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Infectious Mononucleosis / blood
  • Infectious Mononucleosis / immunology*
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Lymphocyte Count
  • Macrophage Activation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neopterin
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2 / analysis
  • beta 2-Microglobulin / analysis


  • Cytokines
  • Receptors, Interleukin-2
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Biopterin
  • Neopterin