Betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption related to oral cancer in Taiwan

J Oral Pathol Med. 1995 Nov;24(10):450-3. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0714.1995.tb01132.x.


A hospital-based case-control study of matched pairs was conducted to explore (a) the relationship between the use of betel quid chewing, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and oral cancer and (b) synergism between these factors. The case group consisted of 104 male and 3 female oral cancer patients and these were compared with 194 male and 6 female matched controls. We found by univariate analysis that alcohol consumption, smoking, betel quid chewing, educational level and occupation were associated with oral cancer. The adjusted odds ratios were to be found elevated in patients who were smoking and betel quid chewing. After adjusting for education and occupation covariates, the incidence of oral cancer was computed to be 123-fold higher in patients who smoked, drank alcohol and chewed betel quid than in abstainers. The synergistic effects of alcohol, tobacco smoke and betel quid in oral cancer were clearly demonstrated, but there was a statistically significant association between oral cancer and betel quid chewing alone. Swallowing betel quid juice (saliva extract of betel quid produced by chewing) or including unripened betel fruit in the quid both seemed to enhance the risks of contracting oral cancer.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology*
  • Areca*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cocarcinogenesis
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mouth Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Occupations
  • Odds Ratio
  • Plants, Medicinal*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Taiwan / epidemiology