Two fundamental questions about neuron cell culture were addressed. Can one serum-free medium that was developed for optimum growth of hippocampal neurons support the growth of neurons from other regions of the brain? Is the region specific state of differentiation maintained in culture? To answer these questions, we isolated neurons from six other rat brain regions, placed them in culture in B27/Neurobasal defined medium, and analyzed their morphology and growth dependence on cell density after 4 days in culture. Neuronal identity was confirmed by immunostaining with antibodies to neurofilament 200. Neurons from each brain region maintained distinctive morphologies in culture in the virtual absence of glia. Cells isolated from embryonic day 18 cerebral cortex by digestion with papain showed the same high survival as hippocampal neurons, e.g., 70% survival for cells plated at 160/mm2. At this age and density, neurons from the septum showed slightly lower survival, 45%. Survival of dentate granule neurons from postnatal day four brains was 30-40%, significantly lower, and relatively independent of plating density. This suggests an absence of dependence on trophic factors or contact for dentate granule neurons. Growth of cerebellar granule neurons isolated from postnatal day 7, 8, or 9 brains in B27/Neurobasal was compared to growth in BME/10% serum. Viability in serum-free medium at 4 days was much better than that in serum, did not require KCl elevated to 25 mM, and occurred without substantial growth of glia. Cerebellar granule neurons plated at 1,280 cells/mm2 were maintained in culture for three weeks with 17% of the original cell density surviving. Survival of cells isolated from embryonic day 18 substantia nigra was 50% at 160 cells/mm2 after 4 days, similar to that of striatum, but slightly less than hippocampal neuron survival. The dopaminergic phenotype of the substantia nigral neurons was maintained over 2 weeks in culture as judged by immunoreactivity with antibodies to tyrosine hydroxylase. During this time, immunoreactivity was found in the processes as they grew out from the soma. Together, these studies suggest that B27/Neurobasal will be a useful medium for maintaining the differentiated growth of neurons from many brain regions. Potential applications of a common growth medium for different neurons are discussed.