A high serum lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] concentration is associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. Few external factors are able to markedly modify serum Lp(a) concentrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate how serum Lp(a) concentrations of infants between 7 and 24 mo of age change in a cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention, and to assess the influence of apolipoprotein (apo) E phenotypes on serum Lp(a) concentrations. The intervention children (n=394) had serum cholesterol, non-high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, and cholesterol corrected for Lp(a)-cholesterol values (P for all <0.001) lower than those of the control children (n=390), but median serum Lp(a) concentrations at the age of 24 mo were not different from those of control children. Serum Lp(a) values differed according to the apo E phenotype as the median Lp(a) values increased from E2/2 to E3/2, E4/2, E3/3, E4/3, and to E4/4 (P for the difference=0.023, Mann-Whitney U test). Our results suggest that apo E phenotype influences serum Lp(a) concentrations noticeably, but the effect of the cholesterol-lowering dietary intervention was not significant in subjects aged 24 mo.