Objectives: This study assessed the potency of physical and mental activities and emotions (anger and anxiety) and smoking and other substance use as proximate triggers of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease during daily life.
Background: Myocardial ischemia occurs during a wide variety of activities in patients with coronary artery disease, but frequency and relative potency of physical and mental activities, smoking and use of caffeine and alcohol as triggers of ischemia during daily life have not been established.
Methods: Patients (n = 63) with coronary artery disease and evidence of out-of-hospital ischemia kept a validated structured diary of physical and mental activities and psychologic states while undergoing ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring for 24 to 48 h.
Results: Ischemia occurred most frequently during moderately intense physical and mental activities. Patients spent the largest proportion of time engaged in low intensity physical and mental activities (p < 0.05), but the likelihood of ischemia was greatest during intense physical (p < 0.0001) and stressful mental activities (p < 0.03). The percentage of time in ischemia was elevated and approximately equivalent for high intensity physical and high intensity mental activities (5%) compared with 0.2% when patients were engaged in low intensity activities. Strenuous physical activity (e.g., effortful walking, p < 0.05) and the experience of intense anger were potent ischemic triggers, and heart rates at onset of ischemia increased with the intensity of physical and mental activity and with anger. Among smokers, ischemia was more than five times as likely when patients smoked than when they did not (during 24% vs. 5% of diary entries, p < 0.0001). Coffee and alcohol consumption were also related to ischemia (p < 0.05), but this association disappeared after controlling for concurrent cigarette smoking.
Conclusions: Triggers of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease during daily life include not only strenuous exercise, but also activities involving low levels of exertion, such as anger and smoking. Mental activities appear to be as potent as physical activities in triggering daily life ischemia. Coffee and alcohol consumption are related to ischemia only by virtue of their associations with smoking.