Recombinant tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was applied to incised wounds (adult rats, n = 14) and gunshot wounds (dogs, n = 5). The accumulation of RNA and DNA in regenerative tissue, the wound disruption strength (WDS), and histology were examined. The results showed that a single dose of TNF-alpha in saline with highly purified bovine serum albumin increased the WDS and accumulation of RNA and DNA in regenerative tissue in incised wounds 3 days after surgery (p < 0.05). Also, TNF-alpha promoted the inflammatory reaction in the wounded area of gunshot wounds. Histology revealed increased capillary tube-like structures and collagen formation and fibroblast proliferation in both incised and gunshot wounds treated with TNF-alpha. The results indicated that locally applied TNF-alpha benefited the incised and gunshot wound healing. These mitogenic and inflammatory effects of TNF-alpha may be the synergistic effects with other growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF).