We studied 822 kidney transplant recipients followed 1-9 years to determine the dynamics of their entering and leaving the work force. Multivariate analysis revealed that not being diabetic and that being employed pretransplant were associated with a higher rate of posttransplant employment. Some recipients in all pretransplant employment categories, including those receiving disability benefits pretransplant, returned to full-time work posttransplant. The most rapid return to work was in those who had been working full-time or attending school pretransplant. After returning to work, a higher percentage of diabetic recipients stopped working; of those who stopped working, 50% received disability benefits. In contrast, nondiabetic recipients who stopped working full-time were more likely to be retired or working part-time; only 22% received disability benefits.