Anatomical details in the ocular fundus can be seen with increased contrast when appropriate monochromatic illumination is used. This technique permits more accurate visualization and documentation than can be achieved with white light. This article reports the optimal spectral ranges for visualization of the different fundus structures. It describes and illustrates the appearance of individual structures and areas of the fundus under different spectral illuminations. There is a detailed discussion of the optical properties of the fundus layers that provides a background for interpreting the data and a baseline for examination of pathologic conditions.