Monochromatic ophthalmoscopy and fundus photography. The normal fundus

Arch Ophthalmol. 1977 May;95(5):861-8. doi: 10.1001/archopht.1977.04450050139018.


Anatomical details in the ocular fundus can be seen with increased contrast when appropriate monochromatic illumination is used. This technique permits more accurate visualization and documentation than can be achieved with white light. This article reports the optimal spectral ranges for visualization of the different fundus structures. It describes and illustrates the appearance of individual structures and areas of the fundus under different spectral illuminations. There is a detailed discussion of the optical properties of the fundus layers that provides a background for interpreting the data and a baseline for examination of pathologic conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Choroid
  • Color
  • Fundus Oculi*
  • Humans
  • Macula Lutea
  • Middle Aged
  • Nerve Fibers
  • Ophthalmology / instrumentation
  • Ophthalmoscopy / methods*
  • Optic Disk
  • Photography / instrumentation
  • Photography / methods*
  • Pigment Epithelium of Eye
  • Retinal Vessels