Each year, traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with 52,000 deaths and accounts for one third of all injury deaths in the United States; in addition approximately 80,000 persons who survive TBI incur some loss of function, residual disability, and increased medical-care needs because of these injuries. Major causes of TBI are motor-vehicle crashes, falls, assaults, and sports and recreational activities. During 1992-1993 in Oklahoma, horseback riding was the leading cause of sports-related TBI. To further characterize horseback-riding-associated TBIs, the Oklahoma State Department of Health (OSDH) and CDC analyzed these injuries for 1992-1994. This report summarizes the findings of this analysis.