Two-dimensional and dobutamine stress echocardiography in the preoperative assessment of patients with end-stage liver disease prior to orthotopic liver transplantation

Transplantation. 1996 Apr 27;61(8):1180-8. doi: 10.1097/00007890-199604270-00011.


Orthotopic liver transplantation is an established therapy for end-stage liver disease. This study evaluated the range of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients undergoing evaluation for orthotopic liver transplantation and determined the prognostic implications of abnormal echocardiographic features, including ischemia during dobutamine stress echocardiography, in predicting postoperative cardiac events. Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed in 190 patients for assessment of left ventricular function, valvular pathology, and pulmonary hypertension. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was performed in 165 patients for evaluation of inducible ischemia. Contrast echocardiography for detection of intrapulmonary shunting was performed in 125 patients at rest and in 99 during dobutamine stress. Left ventricular dysfunction, significant valvular regurgitation, and inducible ischemia were identified in <1O% of patients. Pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and > or = moderate intrapulmonary shunting were present in 12%, 16%, and 26% of patients, respectively. Severe intrapulmonary shunting predicted death prior to transplantation (P=0.01). Of the 71 transplanted patients, major perioperative events included global left ventricular dysfunction in four patients and myocardial infarction in one patient with normal coronary arteries. No preoperative echocardiographic parameters, including ischemia on dobutamine echocardiography, predicted these perioperative events. No cardiac events related to obstructive coronary artery disease occurred in the 154 patients without ischemia on dobutamine stress echocardiography. The majority of patients with end-stage liver disease, including those with alcoholic cirrhosis, have normal cardiac function on two-dimensional echocardiography. Severe intrapulmonary shunting portends a poor prognosis in patients awaiting transplantation. A negative dobutamine stress echocardiogram appears useful in excluding patients at risk for perioperative cardiac events related to obstructive coronary artery disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Dobutamine
  • Echocardiography / methods*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Liver Failure / complications*
  • Liver Failure / therapy
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis


  • Dobutamine