Pharmacogenetic models of alcoholism

Clin Neurosci. 1995;3(3):182-8.


This article reviews recent efforts in developing laboratory animal models for the study of alcoholism and abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior. Through selective breeding, stable lines of rats that reliably exhibit high and low voluntary alcohol consumption have been raised. The high preference animals self-administer ethanol by free-choice drinking, and operantly for intragastric infusion, in amounts that produce intoxication. With chronic free-choice drinking, the preferring rats develop tolerance and physical dependence. Low to moderate concentrations (50-150 mg%) of ethanol are reinforcing to the preferring rat, as evidenced by intracranial self-administration studies. Compared with nonpreferring animals, they are less affected and develop tolerance more quickly to the sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol. Neurochemical, -anatomical and -pharmacological studies indicate innate differences between the alcohol-preferring and -nonpreferring lines in the brain limbic structures. Depending on the animal model under study, a change in the main dopaminergic pathway and/or the serotonergic, opioid, and GABAergic systems that regulate this pathway may underlie the vulnerability to the abnormal alcohol-seeking behavior in these pharmacogenetic animal models of alcoholism.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / psychology*
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Pharmacogenetics*
  • Rats