Periodontal healing and periopathogenic microflora in smokers and non-smokers

J Clin Periodontol. 1995 Dec;22(12):946-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051x.1995.tb01800.x.


The aim of the present study was to monitor the clinical and microbiological effects of non-surgical therapy in smokers and non-smokers. The subject material included 32 patients (age range 32-61 years), 11 men and 21 women with moderate to severe periodontitis. 17 patients were smokers ( > or = 15 cigarettes/day) and 15 non-smokers. All patients were subjected to non-surgical periodontal therapy performed by a dental hygienist. Periodontal variables (plaque index, gingival index and probing depth) were registered and bacterial samples were collected before and 2 months after treatment. The treatment resulted in significant reductions towards very low plaque and gingival indices in smokers and non-smokers alike (p < 0.05). Although probing depth was reduced in both smokers and non-smokers, the probing pocket depth reduction was significantly smaller in smokers than non-smokers (p < 0.05). Microbiologically, the same therapeutical efficacy was attained in both smoking groups, indicating an almost total eradication of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Concerning Prevotella intermedia, out of 14 smokers and 10 non-smokers positive at baseline, 9 and 5, respectively, remained positive after treatment. The results suggest a less favourable clinical outcome of non-surgical therapy in smokers than non-smokers in spite of the fact that the therapy was equally effective with regard to reducing the alleged periopathogens A. actinomycetemcomitans, P. gingivalis and P. intermedia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / isolation & purification
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Dental Plaque / prevention & control
  • Dental Plaque Index
  • Dental Prophylaxis
  • Female
  • Gingivitis / prevention & control
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Periodontal Index
  • Periodontal Pocket / microbiology
  • Periodontal Pocket / therapy
  • Periodontitis / microbiology
  • Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / isolation & purification
  • Prevotella intermedia / isolation & purification
  • Smoking / physiopathology*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Wound Healing