The cytosolic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapC) gene family of maize is differentially expressed in response to anaerobic stress. While GapCl and GapC2 are downregulated, GapC3 and GapC4 are anaerobically induced. We have sequenced and analyzed a 3073 bp promoter fragment of GapC4. The promoter confers anaerobic induction of a reporter gene construct in a transient gene expression system in maize. Deletion analysis of the GapC4 promoter revealed a 270 bp long DNA region required for anaerobic induction. This region contains sequence motifs resembling the cis-acting sequences of the anaerobically induced maize Adh1 and Adh2 genes. Furthermore, the 3073 bp GapC4 promoter fragment displays homology to long terminal repeats of maize retrotransposons and to the 3' region of the maize anthocyanin regulatory locus C1.