We have sequenced and analysed the transaldolase (tal) genes from two cyanobacteria, Anabaena variabilis (ATCC 29413) and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which are filamentous heterocyst-forming and unicellular organisms, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences of the two cyanobacterial tal genes are 78% identical and are highly homologous to both eubacterial and eukaryotic transaldolases (Escherichia coli, two yeasts, and man) with values ranging from 54 to 60% amino acid identity. In contrast, the transaldolase homologous sequences from the cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. ATCC 29133, from Mycobacterium leprae, and the partial sequence from the higher plant Arabidopsis thaliana have a much lower degree of homology with each other and relative to the sequences mentioned above. These data indicate three different types of transaldolases.