Study objective: To analyze predictors of survival for patients receiving home long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) or prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) according to the cause of chronic respiratory insufficiency (CRI) and the patients physiologic data.
Design: Analysis of a nationwide database (ANTADIR Observatory).
Setting: The national nonprofit network for home treatment of patients with CRI Association Nationale pour le Traitement a Domicile de lInsuffisance Respiratoire Chronique (ANTADIR); founded in France in the 1980s.
Patients: There were 26,140 patients receiving LTOT or PMV (noninvasive or via tracheostomy) between January 1, 1984 and January 1, 1993 (chronic bronchitis, 12,043; asthma, 1,755; bronchiectasis, 1,556; emphysema, 551; tuberculosis sequelae, 4,147; kyphoscoliosis, 1,574; neuromuscular diseases, 1,097; pneumoconiosis, 919; and fibrosis, 2,498.
Measurements and results: Survival analysis was performed using the actuarial and the Cox's semiparametric model. The mean survival for patients with chronic bronchitis is 3 years. Survival is slightly better for patients with bronchiectasis and asthma and worse for those with emphysema. Patients with kyphoscoliosis and a neuromuscular disease have the longest survival (8 and 6.5 years, respectively). Patients with CRI due to tuberculosis sequelae experience the same survival as COPD patients (3 years). Prognosis is the worst in patients with pneumoconiosis or fibrosis: 50% of these patients die during the year following the beginning of home treatment. The association of an obstructive lung disease worsens the prognosis of patients with kyphoscoliosis or neuromuscular disease and tends to bring the survival rate of the patients with pneumoconiosis or fibrosis closer to that of COPD patients. In COPD, male sex, older age, lower body mass index (BMI),FEV1 percent predicted,PaO2,and PaCO2 are independent negative prognostic factors. For tuberculous sequelae and kyphoscoliosis, female sex, younger age, a high BMI, PaO2 and PaCO2 (and for kyphoscoliosis a higher FEV1/vital capacity [VC] ratio) are all independent favorable prognostic factors. In pulmonary fibrosis, a lower PaO2 and PaCO2 values, a lower VC percent predicted, and a higher FEV1/VC ratio are negative prognostic factors.
Conclusions: The ANTADIR Observatory allows a unique opportunity to analyze long-term survival of a large population with CRI treated at home.