Delineation of the peptide binding site of the human galanin receptor

EMBO J. 1996 Jan 15;15(2):236-44.


Galanin, a neuroendocrine peptide of 29 amino acids, binds to Gi/Go-coupled receptors to trigger cellular responses. To determine which amino acids of the recently cloned seven-transmembrane domain-type human galanin receptor are involved in the high-affinity binding of the endogenous peptide ligand, we performed a mutagenesis study. Mutation of the His264 or His267 of transmembrane domain VI to alanine, or of Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII to glycine, results in an apparent loss of galanin binding. The substitution of Glu271 to serine in the extracellular loop III of the receptor causes a 12-fold loss in affinity for galanin. We combined the mutagenesis results with data on the pharmacophores (Trp2, Tyr9) of galanin and with molecular modelling of the receptor using bacteriorhodopsin as a model. Based on these studies, we propose a binding site model for the endogenous peptide ligand in the galanin receptor where the N-terminus of galanin hydrogen bonds with Glu271 of the receptor, Trp2 of galanin interacts with the Zn2+ sensitive pair of His264 and His267 of transmembrane domain VI, and Tyr9 of galanin interacts with Phe282 of transmembrane domain VII, while the C-terminus of galanin is pointing towards the N-terminus of th

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Alanine
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Cell Membrane / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Conserved Sequence
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Galanin / chemistry
  • Galanin / metabolism*
  • Glycine
  • Histidine
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Bonding
  • Kinetics
  • Ligands
  • Melanoma
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutagenesis, Site-Directed
  • Phenylalanine
  • Point Mutation
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Protein Structure, Secondary*
  • Receptors, Galanin
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / chemistry*
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Swine
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • DNA, Complementary
  • Ligands
  • Receptors, Galanin
  • Receptors, Gastrointestinal Hormone
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Phenylalanine
  • Histidine
  • Galanin
  • Alanine
  • Glycine