Background: The prognosis of retinal vein occlusion is highly unpredictable because nonischemic types may convert into ischemic types within the first months. This study was designed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of the different types of retinal vein occlusion, their visual outcome, and their prognostic factors.
Methods: The authors analyzed prospectively the data from patients who have had retinal vein occlusion with complete medical and biologic examination, including fluorescein angiography, and a 1-year follow-up.
Results: One hundred seventy-five retinal vein occlusion eyes consisted of 120 central retinal vein occlusions (CRVO), 7 hemicentral occlusions, and 48 branch occlusions. In initially nonischemic CRVO eyes, retinal ischemia developed in 54%. The study of prognostic factors in the CRVO group showed that older age, male sex, and the number of risk factors (systemic vascular risk factors and glaucoma) were correlated with a poor visual outcome and with the development of retinal ischemia, as well as baseline visual acuity, initial extent of retinal ischemia, and rheologic findings (hematocrit, fibrinogen, and erythrocyte aggregation levels). Logistic regression underlined the prognostic role of sex, the number of risk factors, erythrocyte aggregation, and initial clinical features. Persistent macular edema was shown to be associated with hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular history, and inversely correlated to glaucoma.
Conclusion: Because clinical characteristics of CRVO may worsen, the authors' results provide a basis to predict visual outcome by taking into account epidemiologic and rheologic findings. A careful follow-up of these patients is recommended.