Background: Measuring serum cytokines, pituitary hormones, or acute phase proteins during or after surgery is not an optimal method for quantifying the impact of surgical procedures. In an effort to assess surgical stress by means of the immune response, we focused on changes in cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity as illustrated by the type 1/type 2 T-helper (Th1/Th2) cell balance. The sensitivity of this approach was evaluated by comparing laparoscopic and conventional cholecystectomy (LCE, CCE).
Methods: In a pragmatic prospective study 43 patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were operated on either by LCE (n = 25) or CCe (n = 18). Blood sampling was done 24 hours before surgery, immediately before incision, and 2, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Cell surface markers and cytokine production were used to characterize the Th1/Th2 balance and were measured by means of flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques.
Results: Activation of Th2 cells evokes the production and secretion of interleukin-4 (IL-4), which up-regulates the expression of immunoglobulin E receptors (Fo epsilon RII, CD23) on B cells. Phytohemagglutinin-induced IL-4 production in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients increased more after CCE than LCE (IL-4, +41% versus +17%; p < 0.05). Also the expression of CD23 on B cells was higher after CCE than LCE (+146% versus +63%; P < 0.01). CD30, a membrane molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and probably is an important indicator of Th2 activity, was more evaluated on T cells from patients who underwent CCE. The Th1 response, characterized by phytohemagglutinin-induced IFN-gamma secretion in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and up-regulation of human leukocyte antigen-DR expression on monocytes, was lower after CCE than after LCE.
Conclusions: This study shows that surgical stress induces a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance toward Th2, suggesting that cell-mediated immunity is down-regulated and antibody-mediated immunity is up-regulated after surgery. The evaluation of this shift may be clinically meaningful and help quantify even less invasive surgical procedures. When comparing CCE and LCE in this not strictly randomized study, we found LCE to be the less stressful procedure.