A major problem in the treatment of solid tumors is the eradication of established, disseminated metastases. Here we describe an effective treatment for established experimental hepatic metastases of human neuroblastoma in C. B.-17 scid/scid mice. This was accomplished with an antibody-cytokine fusion protein, combining the unique targeting ability of antibodies with the multifunctional activity of cytokines. An anti-(ganglioside GD2) antibody (ch14.18) fusion protein with interleukin-2 (ch14.18-IL2), constructed by fusion of a synthetic sequence coding for human interleukin-2 (IL-2) to the carboxyl end of the C-gamma1 gene of chl4.18, was tested for its therapeutic efficacy against xenografted human neuroblastoma in vivo. The ch14.18-IL2 fusion protein markedly inhibited growth of established hepatic metastases in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice previously reconstituted with human lymphokine-activated killer cells. Animals treated with ch14.18-IL2 showed an absence of macroscopic liver metastasis. In contrast, treatment with combinations of ch14.18 and recombinant IL2 at dose levels equivalent to the fusion protein only reduced the tumour load. Survival times of SCID mice treated with the fusion protein were more than double that of control animals. These results demonstrate that an immunotherapeutic approach using a cytokine targeted by an antibody to tumor sites is highly effective in eradicating the growth of established tumor metastases.