Auxiliary liver transplantation (LT) is a special procedure of LT which could be proposed to patients with fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and has for aim that complete regeneration of the native liver (NL) left in place will allow the graft recipient to resume normal liver function after allograft withdrawal. We report 30 cases of auxiliary LT performed for FHF in 12 European centers. Twenty-five of 30 patients were younger than 50 years. The cause of FHF was hepatitis A virus (HAV) in 4 patients, hepatitis B virus (HBV) in 7, paracetamol overdose in 5, ecstasy in 2, hepatotoxic drugs in 4, autoimmune hepatitis in 2, liver lesions of preeclampsia in 1 and unknown in 5. A postoperative, both clinical and histological follow-up of more than 3 weeks was obtained in 22 patients, enabling us to look for indicators predictive of NL regeneration and outcome. Histological changes observed in the NL included complete regeneration in 68%, incomplete regeneration with obvious fibrous sequelae in 14% and severe liver fibrosis or cirrhosis in 18%, of the 22 patients studied. The percentage and distribution of necrosis observed in tissue samples of the NL at the time of transplantation was not related to the final outcome. Complete NL regeneration was observed in 15 patients, out of whom 14 were younger than 40 years. Patients with complete regeneration were mainly affected by FHF due to HAV, HBV, or paracetamol overdose. After a follow-up of 18/11 (mean/median) months (range, 3 to 67 months), 19 of the 30 patients (63%) survived and 13 of them (68%), i.e., 43% of the 30 patients, had resumed normal NL function, with interrupted immunosuppression, the ultimate goal of emergency auxiliary LT. We conclude that, in patients with FHF, auxiliary LT is a procedure feasible in a number of centers and is associated with a complete regeneration capability of the NL in a majority of survivors, especially in those younger than 40 years. Confirmation of these encouraging preliminary results by large-scale prospective studies is required.