Form and function of the musculoskeletal system as revealed by mathematical analysis of the lumbar spine. An essay

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 1995 Jul 1;20(13):1462-74. doi: 10.1097/00007632-199507000-00004.

Abstract

Wolff's law describes the mechanical ultrastructure of tissue and indicates a design for minimal stress or minimal energy expenditure. Formation of this theory for the mechanism of the back reveals the critical design of members of this musculoskeletal system, which is comparable with other anthropoids. It also reveals that the pre-adaptations that enable the individual to lift heavy weights are the same adaptations that allow him or her to walk and run.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Muscles / physiology*
  • Amphibians
  • Animals
  • Arthritis / physiopathology
  • Biological Evolution
  • Birds
  • Electromyography
  • Fascia / physiology
  • Fishes
  • Foot / physiology
  • Fossils
  • Gorilla gorilla
  • Humans
  • Hylobates
  • Joints / physiology
  • Lifting
  • Ligamentum Flavum / physiology
  • Locomotion / physiology
  • Longitudinal Ligaments / physiology
  • Lumbar Vertebrae / physiology*
  • Lumbosacral Region / physiology*
  • Mammals
  • Mathematics
  • Models, Biological
  • Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena
  • Nociceptors / physiology
  • Pan troglodytes
  • Psoas Muscles / physiology*
  • Reptiles
  • Spine / physiology
  • Torsion Abnormality
  • Walking
  • Weight-Bearing / physiology