A study of cancer incidence in a cohort of 597 women with Turner syndrome (TS) and a virtually complete follow-up is presented. The cohort was established from the Danish Cytogenetic Register. Information on cancer incidence was obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with the expected number calculated from the age-, period- and site-specific cancer rates for Danish women. A total of 21 neoplasms was observed, of which 13 occurred more than 1 year after diagnosis of TS, corresponding to a relative risk of cancer of 1.1. Wilms' tumour was the only identified childhood cancer. No case of gonadoblastoma or dysgerminoma was identified in the 29 women with a Y chromosome or in the women in whom no Y chromosome material was detected by standard cytogenetic methods, suggesting that the risk of ovarian germ cell tumours may be lower than previously estimated. Colon cancer was observed in five patients (relative risk 6.9, 95% confidence interval 2.2-16.2). Further studies are needed to assess whether colon cancer in TS is related to Turner-associated genes on the sex chromosome(s).