A cDNA clone encoding a hexose transporter has been isolated from a library prepared from Medicago truncatula roots colonized by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme. The clone (Mtst1) represents a M. truncatula gene and expression studies in yeast indicate that the encoded protein transports glucose and fructose but not sucrose. Transcripts corresponding to Mtst1 are expressed in leaves, stems and roots of M. truncatula, with the highest levels of expression in roots. In the roots, Mtst1 transcripts were detected in two distinct locations; the phloem fiber cells of the vascular tissue, and the cells of the root tip. Mtst1 expression in the roots is regulated in response to colonization by G. versiforme; transcript levels increased two- to fourfold in both M. truncatula and M. sativa following colonization by G. versiforme but did not increase during the unsuccessful interaction between G. versiforme and a M. sativa myc- mutant, suggesting that the increase in Mtst1 transcripts in the successful mycorrhizal interaction is correlated with internal growth of the fungus and potentially with a functioning symbiosis. Mtst1 transcripts were also detected in the cortical cells of the mycorrhizal root, specifically in areas of the root that were highly colonized by the mycorrhizal fungus. Thus, the formation of a symbiotic association with a VA mycorrhizal fungus is accompanied by a change in the cell type-specific expression of a transporter that potentially functions to supply sugars to root cells critically involved in the symbiotic association.