The hydrolases aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV, both present in the kidney on the brush borders of the proximal tubule epithelial cells and podocytes, are involved in the induction of experimental membranous glomerulonephritis in the mouse. However, little is known about their (co)distribution in other tissues and their function in health and disease. A detailed insight into the localization of these two enzymes is a prerequisite to elucidation of their function. Therefore, we investigated the presence and co-distribution of aminopeptidase A and dipeptidyl peptidase IV by immunohistology with two different rat monoclonal antibodies, the specificity of which was determined by an immunodepletion technique. In addition, the molecular weight of the hydrolases; was analyzed by SDS-PAGE after isolation by solid-phase immunoprecipitation from glomeruli, renal brush borders, and thymus. Both hydrolases showed different molecular weights in renal corpuscle, renal brush borders, and thymic cells. A widespread organ distribution of the two hydrolases was observed, with co-localization in kidney, liver, small intestine, thymus, brain, spleen, and lymph nodes, either on the same cells or on different cells in the same organ. This distribution and partial co-localization suggests that the two hydrolases, acting either alone or in concert, have a role in many diverse biological processes.