Recently, a new class of immunomodulating agents, represented by the molecules imiquimod and R-842, has demonstrated potent antiviral and antitumor activities in animal models. In this study, another representative of this class, S-28463 (4-amino-2-ethoxymethyl-alpha,alpha-dimethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinoline- 1- ethanol) was evaluated for its immunomodulating and antiviral activities. S-28463 induced IFN and other cytokines in vivo in mice, rats, monkeys and in vitro in human peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures. S-28463 showed potent antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus-challenged guinea pigs when given subcutaneously, dermally, or intravaginally 24 h before infection. Antiviral activity in guinea pigs correlated with the induction of serum 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase activity. Thus, S-28463, like the other imidazoquinolines, demonstrates potent antiviral and immunomodulating effects in a number of models.